Why Do Rivers Curve?

  • Published on:  11/19/2014
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    Created by Henry Reich
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    Ferreira da Silva, A. M. (2006). On why and how do rivers meander.

    Howard, A. D. (2009). How to make a meandering river. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(41), 17245-17246. http://www.pnas.org/content/106/41/17245.full

    Howard, A. D., & Knutson, T. R. (1984). Sufficient conditions for river meandering: A simulation approach. Water Resources Research, 20(11), 1659-1667. http://erode.evsc.virginia.edu/papers/howard_meander_84.pdf

    Leopold, L. B., & Wolman, M. G. (1960). River meanders. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 71(6), 769-793. https://www.usu.edu/jackschmidt/files/uploads/Fluvial_2013_Labs/Leopold_Wolman_1960.pdf

    Parker, H. (1996). River Meandering as Self-Organization Process. Science,271, 1710. http://www.f052.it/watch/927/meandering_river.pdf

    Rhoads, B. L., & Welford, M. R. (1991). Initiation of river meandering. Progress in Physical Geography, 15(2), 127-156. http://www.geog.illinois.edu/~brhoads/rhoads%20and%20welford%201991.pdf

    Schwenk, Jon. Interview. 9 July 2014.

    Seminara, G. (2006). Meanders. Journal of fluid mechanics, 554, 271-297. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=431272&fileId=S0022112006008925

    Stølum, H. H. (1998). Planform geometry and dynamics of meandering rivers.Geological Society of America Bulletin, 110(11), 1485-1498. http://bruche.u-strasbg.fr/pages_protegees/pdf/stolum_1998.pdf

    Video and Image Credits

    Waterfalls Cascading - Courtesy Shutterstock

    Rio cauto Cuba - Public Domain Photo

    Tiger Leaping Gorge - Courtesy Shutterstock

    River coming from mountain - Google Earth
    42°21'35.72" S 173°34'30.41" E

    Meandering River - Google Earth Engine

    Under Water 2 - Ken Mankoff

    Oxbow Lake Australia - GoogleEarth
    23°41'31.06" S 150°47'53.91" E

    Oxbow Lake Colombia - GoogleEarth
    3°20'18.70" N 70°07'10.92" O

    Oxbow Lake France - Google Earth
    46°55'24.16" N 5°19'28.34" E

    Dry Oxbow Lake Colorado - Google Earth
    32°00'06.80" N 115°07'19.81" O

    Martian Rivers on Aeolis Planum - NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

    Mars Rover Curiosity - Public Domain Image